Pakistan is the world’s sixth most populated country, located in South Asia. The country has a population of 201,995,540 people and covers an area of 881,913 square kilometers, making it the 36th biggest in the globe. The area that is now Pakistan is considered a cradle of civilization and has been home to a number of ancient cultures. This is where the Neolithic city of Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilization arose. Several dynasties and empires have ruled over the region in the past, leaving their mark on the development of Pakistan’s diverse cultures and linguistic variety.
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Punjabi, English, Urdu, and Saraiki are the province’s official languages. Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan, with 44 percent of the population speaking it as their first or second language, with others speaking it as a third language. Lahore, Pakistan’s capital and largest Punjabi-speaking metropolis, is the world’s largest Punjabi-speaking city. According to the 1998 Census, Punjabi dialects are spoken by 87 percent of the entire population of Lahore and 68 percent of the population of Islamabad, Pakistan’s capital.
Sindhi is the provincial language of Sindh, which is spoken throughout the province. Sindhi is Pakistan’s third most widely spoken language (after Punjabi and Pashto) and the country’s only regional language. This language, along with numerous other Sindhi languages such as Lasi, Kutchi, Thari, and Sindhi Saraiki, is largely spoken and used by Sindhis.
Balochi It is one of the oldest existing languages on the subcontinent, and it belongs to the Indo-European languages spoken in the Indo-Iranian region. It is often written Baluchi or Beluchi. Afghanistan, Iran, and Balochistan, Pakistan’s largest province, are the main speakers. According to historical documents, after Pakistan’s independence, Baloch intellectuals used the Perso-Arabic alphabet to write the Balochi language. Eastern Balochi (spoken in Afghanistan/Iran), Western Balochi (spoken in coastal sections of Balochistan), Northern Balochi (spoken in middle and upper Balochistan), and Southern Balochi (spoken in southern Balochistan) are the four dialects of the Balochi language (spoken in lower Balochistan).
Pashto This Pakistani language is spoken by more than 15.42 percent of the country’s population. Pashto speakers are primarily found in Pakistan’s northern Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces. This language is also spoken by Pashtun groups in the country’s cities. Khushal Khan Khattak, Rahman Baba, Khatir Afridi, and Ghani Khan are just a few of the notable poets who have written in Pashto. Also learning Pashtun.
Saraiki is another Indo-Aryan language with a large following. Around 17 million people speak it as their first language, mostly in Pakistan’s Sindh and Punjab provinces. It is also a minor language in India, spoken primarily in the Punjab state. Seraiki, Siraiki, Multani, Lahndi, and Western Punjabi are some of the names given to the Saraiki language. Saraiki is frequently mistaken for a Punjabi dialect. Saraiki is written in the Perso-Arabic script in Pakistan, whereas it is written in the Gurmukhi and Devanagari alphabets in India.
Hindko, a member of the Indo-Aryan language family, is another ancient language spoken in Pakistan. Hinko is spoken by Hindkowan people who live primarily in Pakistan’s northern regions. The name of the language, according to linguistic specialists, is a combination of two words: “Hind” denotes Sindh and “ko” means language. According to historical records, the conquerors from Afghanistan gave this name to the indigenous language, which was spoken at the time from Peshawar to Uttar Pradesh. There has been some debate about Hindko, as some regard it as a Sindhi dialect, while others regard it as one of the lesser-known dialects of Punjabi.
According to Ethnologue, a language database, Pakistanis speak 74 different languages. According to the report, there are 66 local languages and eight foreign languages. According to Ethnologue, Urdu is Pakistan’s national language, but only 10% of the population speaks it. Punjabi is the most widely spoken language, with 48% of the population speaking it. According to the website, 12 percent of the population speaks Sindhi, ten percent Seraiki and English, eight percent Pashto, three percent Balochi, two percent Hindko, and one percent Brahui.
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